Italian Weights and Measures from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century
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If a unit's measurement or description is identical to that of another more commonly known unit, the words "equivalent to" follow the etymological comments.
If the unit were different by definition from another unit, but commonly associated with it due to identical physical properties or dimensions, the terms "sy-. Introduction [ xii: nonymous with" or "used interchangeably with" are employed. Whenever possible, metric equivalents are included in parentheses; the equivalents have been carried out to two decimal places for the approximate units and usually to three decimal places for the exact.
After each major metrological variation or group of variations there are citations from the appropriate sources:. The date at the beginning of these citations always represents the year in which the manuscript or book or other source was written and never the publication date.
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The code name and numbers after the date identify the source and page reference e. A Roman numeral following the code name, but preceding the period before the page number, supplies the volume e. An Arabic number in such a position refers to one of several books listed under that particular code name.
The number after the period is always the page number.
If there is no volume number and the bibliographical code name has only one title listed under it, the page number immediately follows the source reference e. It should be noted that in the illustrative quotations all manuscript abbreviations have been expanded and underlined e. Also, letters superscripted in the source have been placed on the same line as the rest of the word e.
Similarly, whenever Roman numerals in.
Italian Weights and Measures
X X Xmanuscripts were written above another numeral e. If multiplication or addition is involved, the appropriate arithmetical sign has been placed between the numbers e. Other abbreviations, such as lb. The bibliography is divided into two sections. In the first are the sources that were used in the data compilations. Introduction [ xv and in the illustrative quotations. The second contains additional sources that were not cited in the text but which provide further information about Italian weights and measures and which discuss some of the problems of premetric Italian metrology.
No fictional sources are included.
Many persons and institutions provided assistance to me during the research and writing stages of this book. In a semester of uninterrupted research I was able to complete a substantial portion of this work, being aided by the professional staffs of the Institutes Library and of the Firestone Library of Princeton University, assisted unselfishly by secretaries Elizabeth Horton and Sandra Lafferty, and encouraged constantly by professors Marshall Glagett, Kenneth Setton, Lorenzo Minio-Paluello, and David Billington.
A grant from the National Science Foundation enabled me to undertake initially the study of Italian metrology at libraries and government depositories in Italy, France, Canada, and the United States. I am also indebted to the American Philosophical Society for two grants that provided additional research opportunities in Europe, and to the Committee on Research of Marquette University for a summer fellowship and several grants that financed the completion of the data compilation.
For their intellectual encouragement and, in some instances, letters of recommendation in connection with these grants, the following individuals deserve special mention: xvi ]. Acknowledgments [ xvii Dr. Jon B. Maureen Mazzuoui and John W. Finally, for their long and patient devotion to this project, I laud the work of Mr. Dennis Mueller and Mrs. Mary Larsen, my research assistants.
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Milwaukee, Wisconsin Ronald Edward Zupko Published on Dec View Download 4. Table 1 is an alphabetic listing of all [ Ix X ] Introductionthe abbreviations used throughout the work. If the unit were different by definition from another unit, but commonly associated with it due to identical physical properties or dimensions, the terms "sy- Introduction [ xii: nonymous with" or "used interchangeably with" are employed. After each major metrological variation or group of variations there are citations from the appropriate sources: The date at the beginning of these citations always represents the year in which the manuscript or book or other source was written and never the publication date.
The code name always refers to a corresponding title in the bibliography. An Arabic number in such a position refers to one of several books listed under that particular code name xiv ] Introductionin the bibliography e. Similarly, whenever Roman numerals in X X Xmanuscripts were written above another numeral e. In the first are the sources that were used in the data compilations Introduction [ xv and in the illustrative quotations.
For their intellectual encouragement and, in some instances, letters of recommendation in connection with these grants, the following individuals deserve special mention: xvi ] Acknowledgments [ xvii Dr. Life in the Middle Ages 5 th to the 15 th Century Documents. Introduction to the middle ages -? Jochen Hoock, Pierre Jeannin, vols. In the 19th century, the adoption of the metric system in continental Europe was the occasion of an intensive preoccupation with the conversion of old measures to new ones on this cf.
Bernard Garnier, Jean-Claude Hocquet, Trends up to the Beginning of the 20th Century. The interest of clas- sical philology in fiscal history continued to influence the classification of metrology within the sub-discipline of numismatics into the 20th century. The trend corresponds to the displacement of research into historical measures from the universities into the local history associations and their publications. These were partly run by interested laypeople, and were peri- odically disconnected from the methodological trends of the universities Schauinsland, Deutsche Gaue etc.
The Breadth of Research, ss. For Southeastern Europe cf.
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These studies laid the foundations for the develop- ment of historical metrology from the late seventies on. They cover, methodologically and thematically, a very wide spectrum of approaches. Despite this fundamental heterogeneity, a number of accents can be distinguished among the various programs. The beginnings of coor- dinated communication of research can be found in the series of colloquia held since by the International Committee for Historical Metrology CIMH , which reveal the stages of the institutionalization of the subject.
The colloquia represent the broad field of re- search in central Europe. The contributions tend to concentrate on the sys- tems of older weights and measures in a local and comparative perspective, including criticism of simple conversion of old measures to new ones , the description of measuring objects and sources on weights and measures. The first two volumes are characterized by a stronger presence of Eastern Euro- pean authors. The papers for the fifth colloquium were dedicated to state ef- forts to control weights and measures. Proceedings of the Colloquia of the Centre national de la recherche scientifique C.
Centre national de la recherche scientifique. The aims of the loosely allied research group were formulated as: 1. As well as to the traditional historical metro- logical research, it is dedicated to digital data-processing and to the newer archeometric methods for the surveying of surviving artifacts. The contributions related to the Middle Ages thus go beyond the depiction of grain, land and building measures to cover subjects such as the history of coins and money, the statisti- cal analysis of sources, as well as questions of lexicometrics, prosopography, and population history questions.
Its archeometric sections include history of ceramics, settlement and nutrition. The Series Ordo et Mensura is an addition to the field of general descrip- tions of projects, finds and analysis.
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Methodologically speaking, it orients itself towards the work of the general editors Dieter Ahrens und Rolf A. Dieter Ahrens, Rolf A. This methodology gives positivistic-statistical techniques precedence over historical or research-history derived contextualizations; cf. Florian Huber, Rolf A. The series has a particular focus of interest on architectural measurement.