Femtosecond Laser 3D Micromachining for Microfluidic and Optofluidic Applications

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His papers have been cited more than 1, times and his current H-index is 21 Database: web of science. This capability makes it possible to directly fabricate three-dimensional microfluidics, micromechanics, microelectronics and microoptics embedded in the glass. Thus, the femtosecond laser processing provides some advantages over conventional methods such as traditional semiconductor processing or soft lithography for fabrication of microfluidic, optofludic and lab-on-a-chip devices and thereby many researches on this topic are currently being carried out.

This book presents a comprehensive review on the state of the art and future prospects of femtosecond laser processing for fabrication of microfluidics and optofludics including principle of femtosecond laser processing, detailed fabrication procedures of each microcomponent and practical applications to biochemical analysis. Read more Read less.

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From the Back Cover Femtosecond lasers opened up new avenue in materials processing due to its unique features of ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity. About the Author Koji Sugioka is recognized worldwide as a leading scientist in the area of laser micro and nano processing.

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Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Femtosecond lasers can thus perform internal modification of glass. Internal modification is widely used to fabricate microfluidic structures and micro-optical components, which can be used to produce biomicrochips for biochemical analysis. This chapter reviews the fundamentals and characteristics of femtosecond laser processing.

Femtosecond Laser 3D Micromachining for Microfluidic and Optofluidic Applications

It also introduces state-of-the-art femtosecond laser processing. Although laser drilling has long been used for producing straight one-dimensional 1D holes in glass, it generally cannot be used to form 3D microchannels since thin channels become clogged with the debris produced during laser ablation. This chapter describes two approaches that have been developed to overcome this problem.

The first is femtosecond-laser-assisted wet chemical etching, in which femtosecond laser irradiation is used to modify the chemical properties of glass and subsequent chemical etching is used to selectively remove the modified regions. The second approach is liquid-assisted femtosecond laser 3D drilling in which liquid is flowed through the channels to greatly enhance the removal rate of debris produced by laser ablation. This chapter also discusses several beam-shaping techniques for controlling the cross section of the microchannels.

The cross-sectional shape of microchannels is significant in many microfluidic applications because it determines the fluid dynamics and biological functions of microchannels. Fluid control microdevices such as microvalves, micropumps, and micromixers are key components in microfluidic systems. Femtosecond laser direct writing of glass followed by wet chemical etching i. Such structures can function as fluid control microdevices that can be used to control the flow rate and direction of fluids in microfluidic channels.

This chapter describes fabrication of a freely movable microplate and microrotor whose motions are controlled by air pressure, optical force, or an external micromotor.


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The microplate functions as a microvalve, whereas the microrotor functions as a micropump. Fabrication of optofluidic systems requires synergetic incorporation of micro-optical components in microfluidic networks. This chapter describes key techniques for fabricating optical waveguides and free-space micro-optical components in glass by femtosecond laser microprocessing, both of which are essential building blocks for optofluidic devices. It is straightforward to fabricate optical waveguides as femtosecond laser irradiation can change the refractive index of glass through multiphoton absorption in the focal volume.

Free-space micro-optical components such as micromirrors and microlenses can be fabricated using femtosecond-laser-assisted wet chemical etching to form hollow structures with planar or curved surfaces in glass that serve as optical interfaces.


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  • Micro-attenuators can be embedded in glass with a high spatial resolution and controllable attenuations by synthesizing silver nanoparticles in photosensitive glass using femtosecond laser irradiation and subsequent heat treatment. Selective metallization of glass can be used to incorporate microelectronic components in microfluidic systems making it an important technique for further enhancing the functions of biochips.

    Both femtosecond-laser-assisted electroless plating and femtosecond laser surface modification combined with electroless plating can be used to selectively deposit thin metal films only on laser irradiated regions, even on the internal walls of microfluidic structures. Additionally, two-photon-induced metal ion reduction of a liquid or polymer containing metal ions by femtosecond laser direct writing can be used to fabricate three-dimensional metal microstructures on glass substrates that have a high electrical conductivity.

    These metallization techniques can be utilized to manufacture functional microcomponents including microheaters for space-selective control of temperature in microfluidic systems and surface-enhanced Raman scattering platforms for highly sensitive analysis of biochemical samples.

    Holdings: Femtosecond laser 3D micromachining for microfluidic and optofluidic applications /

    Various microcomponents, including microelectrodes and micro-optic and microfluidic components, can be fabricated in transparent materials by femtosecond laser direct writing. This chapter describes in detail techniques for integrating different types of microcomponents on a single substrate for constructing highly functional microfluidic, photonic, and optofluidic systems and devices. Several examples are described, including integration of microlenses and waveguides for beam collimation and focusing, integration of a micro-optical ring cavity and a microfluidic chamber for creating 3D microfluidic dye lasers, integration of microelectrodes and waveguide-based Mach—Zehnder interferometer in a lithium niobate LiNbO 3 crystal for constructing an optical modulator, and integration of micro-optic and microfluidic components in glass for optofluidic applications.

    The ability of femtosecond laser processing to simultaneously fabricate three-dimensional microfluidic, micro-optical, microelectronic, and micromechanic components inside glass microchips provides great advantages over conventional fabrication techniques for fabricating various biochips.

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    This chapter introduces applications of biochips fabricated by femtosecond laser processing to biosensing based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy, efficient mixing of fluids, single cell detection, manipulation and sorting of cells, concentration analysis of liquid samples, and detection and elucidation of the functions of microorganisms and bacteria.

    The primary goal of this book is to comprehensively review state-of-the-art femtosecond laser three-dimensional 3D micromachining techniques for microfluidic and optofluidic applications, including techniques for fabricating microfluidic components, optical waveguides, free-space micro-optical components, microelectrodes, and integrated optofluidic systems and devices. It also presents typical examples of applications of femtosecond-laser-fabricated microfluidic and optofluidic chips for chemical sensing and investigating biological species.

    http://sandbox.cmnv.org/ios-monitoring-app.php Comparison with conventional lithography-based fabrication techniques reveals the uniqueness and versatility of femtosecond laser micromachining.