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Science fiction - 3D Astronomy - 3D Astrology

Heinlein , and Philip K. Some writers blur the boundary between hard and soft science fiction; for example Mack Reynolds's work focuses on politics but anticipated many developments in computers, including cyber-terrorism. Space Opera is a subgenre of speculative fiction or science fiction that emphasizes romantic adventure, and larger-than-life characters often set against vast exotic futuristic settings. Space opera in its most familiar form was a product of the pulp magazines for the s—s.

Science fiction in general borrowed a great deal from the established adventure and pulp fiction genres, notably frontier stories of the American West and stories with exotic settings such as Africa or the orient, and space opera was no exception. There were often parallels between sailing ships and spaceships, between African explorers and space explorers, between oceanic pirates and space pirates. Related and similar is the 'Space Western', a genre playing with the conventions of the Western genre in a sci-fi setting, popularized lately by the Joss Whedon's television show Firefly.

Despite the antiquated and pejorative origins of the term, space opera is still what many people think of when they think of science fiction in pop culture, from Buck Rogers to "Star Trek" and Star Wars. Another branch of speculative fiction is the utopian or dystopian story. The Cyberpunk genre emerged in the early s; the name is a portmanteau of "cybernetics" and "punk," and was first coined by author Bruce Bethke in his short story "Cyberpunk".

The genre was really launched by William Gibson's book, Neuromancer which is credited for envisioning cyberspace, predicting the internet years before such a thing existed, and establishing cybyerpunk as one of the new facets of science fiction. The time frame of cyberpunk literature is usually near-future and the settings are often dystopian. Common themes in cyberpunk include advances in information technology and especially the Internet visually abstracted as cyberspace , possibly malevolent artificial intelligence , enhancements of mind and body using bionic prosthetics and direct brain-computer interfaces called cyberware, and post-democratic societal control where corporations have more influence than governments.

Nihilism, post-modernism, and film noir techniques are common elements, and the protagonists may be disaffected or reluctant anti-heroes. The film Blade Runner is commonly accepted as a definitive example of the cyberpunk visual style. Interestingly enough, the name of the sub-genre of cyberpunk gave rise to several related sub-genres, each denoted by the addition of the 'punk' suffix to a technology or theme to form a portmanteau denoting the union of that genre with the dark, edgy, authority-defiant attitude of the punk movement. Other examples of these sub-sub-genres include biopunk including Frank Herbert's The Eyes of Heisenberg and the Deus Ex computer games, or spacepunk including the Systems Malfunction roleplaying game and the anime Cowboy Bebop , also in part a Space Western.

Time travel stories have antecedents in the 18th and 19th centuries, and this subgenre was popularized by H. Wells 's novel The Time Machine. Time travel stories are complicated by logical problems such as the grandfather paradox. Alternate history stories are based on the premise that historical events might have turned out differently. These stories may use time travel to change the past, or may simply set a story in a universe with a different history from our own.

The Sidewise Award acknowledges the best works in this subgenre; the name is taken from Murray Leinster's story "Sidewise in Time. Military science fiction is set in the context of conflict between national, interplanetary, or interstellar armed forces; the primary viewpoint characters are usually soldiers. Stories include detail about military technology, procedure, ritual, and history; military stories may use parallels with historical conflicts.

Stirling, and Lois McMaster Bujold. As a means of understanding the world through speculation and storytelling, science fiction has antecedents as far back as ancient mythology , though precursors to science fiction as literature began to emerge during the Age of Reason with the development of science itself. More examples appeared throughout the nineteenth century.

Then with the dawn of new technologies such as electricity , the telegraph , and new forms of powered transportation , writers like Jules Verne and H. Wells created a body of work that became popular across broad cross-sections of society. In the early twentieth century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories magazine.

Heinlein , Arthur C. Clarke , and A. Van Vogt. Campbell's tenure at Astounding is considered to be the beginning of the Golden Age of science fiction, characterized by hard SF stories celebrating scientific achievement and progress. In the s, the Beat generation included speculative writers like William S. In the s and early s, writers like Frank Herbert, Samuel R. Delany, Roger Zelazny, and Harlan Ellison explored new trends, ideas, and writing styles, while a group of writers, mainly in Britain , became known as the New Wave.

Le Guin and others pioneered soft science fiction. In the s, cyberpunk authors like William Gibson turned away from the traditional optimism and support for progress of traditional science fiction. Cherryh's detailed explorations of alien life and complex scientific challenges influenced a generation of writers.

Emerging themes in the s included environmental issues, the implications of the global Internet and the expanding information universe, questions about biotechnology and nanotechnology , as well as a post- Cold War interest in post-scarcity societies; Neal Stephenson's The Diamond Age comprehensively explores these themes. Lois McMaster Bujold's Vorkosigan novels brought the character-driven story back into prominence. Television shows like Buffy the Vampire Slayer and movies like The Lord of the Rings created new interest in all the speculative genres in films, television, computer games, and books.

While SF has provided criticism of developing and future technologies, it also produces innovation and new technology.

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The discussion of this topic has occurred more in literary and sociological rather than in scientific forums. Cinema and media theorist Vivian Sobchack examines the dialogue between science fiction film and the technological imagination. Technology does impact how artists portray their fictionalized subjects, but the fictional world gives back to science by broadening imagination. While more prevalent in the beginning years of science fiction with writers like Isaac Asimov , Robert A. Heinlein , and Frank Walker, new authors like Michael Crichton still find ways to make the currently impossible technologies seem so close to being realized.

As special effects , visual effects, computer-generated imagery , and other technologies make it possible to visually realize the imaginary worlds of science fiction, SF dominates the audiovisual media, including films, television, and computer games. Most of the best-selling films of all time have been in the genres of science fiction, fantasy, and horror. Many of the movie serials of the s and s were science fiction, and led into early science-fiction television programming. Following the success of Star Wars in , there was an explosion of new SF films. Contemporary filmmakers have found science fiction to be a useful genre for exploring political, moral and philosophical issues, for example Gattaca on the question of genetic engineering, Starship Troopers as a satire of militarism and fascism and Minority Report on the questions of civil liberties and free will.

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Science-fiction television dates from at least , when the BBC staged a live performance of the science-fiction play R. Star Trek aired from to , creating a new explosion of fan interest. Television science fiction has exploited a variety of SF and fantasy traditions; Quantum Leap and Doctor Who are examples of time travel, Buffy the Vampire Slayer is one of the best-known horror or dark fantasy series, and Mystery Science Theater is one of the few comedy SF series. Science fiction is a particularly popular genre of anime.

Astro Boy, one of the first works of anime, is science fiction, and Hayao Miyazaki's films are often either SF or alternate histories. Classic science fiction anime works include Space Battleship Yamato, Akira, and the definitive cyberpunk anime Ghost in the Shell.

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Sentai refers to anime based on teams of superheroes. Other speculative genres, including fantasy and horror, are popular in anime. Emphasis on female characters and relationships, a common theme in anime generally, are found in SF anime like Bubblegum Crisis and Dirty Pair. Cowboy Bebop refers to itself as "The work which has become a genre unto itself.

Science fiction has a long history of visual art. Artwork depicting a particular scene, setting, or character is known as illustration, which is used on book and magazine covers, movie posters, web sites, and other media, as well as inside books, comics, and games.

WSFS has recognized science fiction art since the s. In the s, computer and video games adopted speculative settings and themes, either from original works or based on existing works. The virtual-reality nature of computer games, allowing game algorithms to simulate behavior impossible in reality lend themselves to science fiction characters and technological options within the game world. A truly huge portion of games have science fiction elements.

SF motifs and story lines have long been prominent in comic strips , comic books, and graphic novels. Buck Rogers first appeared in , followed by Flash Gordon in and Superman in Since then, the superhero genre, in which an individual or team of characters with enhanced or superhuman abilities deals with challenges beyond the capability of ordinary people, has played a large role in the comics field.

Early radio serials adapted Flash Gordon and Buck Rogers stories to radio, followed by other serials and radio magazine shows. Orson Welles 's famous dramatization of The War of the Worlds in panicked American listeners who believed the story was real. Science fiction and fantasy has been performed as live theater since the s; a live musical version of The Lord of the Rings appeared in Toronto in and will soon be performed in London.

Science fiction fandom is the "community of the literature of ideas… the culture in which new ideas emerge and grow before being released into society at large. Science fiction and television have always had a close relationship. The Twilight Zone , produced and narrated by Rod Serling , who also wrote or co-wrote most of the episodes, ran from to It featured fantasy and horror as well as science fiction, with each episode being a complete story.

The original series ran until and was revived in It has been extremely popular worldwide and has greatly influenced later TV science fiction programs, as well as popular culture. It combined elements of space opera and space Western.

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Although only mildly successful it gained popularity through later syndication and eventually spawned a very popular and influential franchise through films, later programs, and novels; as well as by intense fan interest. Stargate SG-1 premiered in and ran for 10 seasons.

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This topic has been more often discussed in literary and sociological than in scientific forums. Cinema and media theorist Vivian Sobchack examines the dialogue between science fiction films and the technological imagination. Technology impacts artists and how they portray their fictionalized subjects, but the fictional world gives back to science by broadening imagination. How William Shatner Changed the World is a documentary that gave a number of real-world examples of actualized technological imaginations.

Science fiction

While more prevalent in the early years of science fiction with writers like Arthur C. Clarke , new authors still find ways to make currently impossible technologies seem closer to being realized. Science fiction has almost always predicted scientific and technological progress.