Biology of the Hard Clam (Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science)
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Alternatively, proposals of living shorelines, such as introduction of native oyster beds on tidal flats throughout this region [ 46 ], [ 47 ], may also provide coarse substrates that could facilitate spread e. More information is needed on the distributions and spreading potential of the Manila clam in its southern range to make informed decisions. In particular, we need more information on the life history and growth of the clam in its southern range, where warmer conditions may lead to faster growth and more frequent spawning [ 7 ],[ 48 ]. We also need to better understand dispersal, settlement and establishment patterns in space and time as related to freshwater pulses, other environmental variables e.
A regional approach to data collection is needed throughout the Southern end of this introduced range to better understand how these factors change with location and conditions, and to document current distribution against which to measure spread. While effects of the Manila clam on other species along the west coast of North America are only recently starting to emerge [ 51 ], studies from Europe reveal potential dramatic ecosystem-level effects associated with dense beds of the clam [ 52 ],[ 53 ].
Page pers. Tracking the habitat requirements, spread and establishment of the Manila clam will inform management priorities and actions in this and other regions, which is especially important given the various plans being considered to adapt with climate change.
We graciously thank Karla, Mayra, Alex Jr. The thoughtful suggestions of two anonymous reviewers greatly improved this manuscript.
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. No additional external funding was received for this study. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One.
Published online Mar Drew M. Philippe Archambault, Academic Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Jan 17; Accepted Jan This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Coastal ecosystem modifications have contributed to the spread of introduced species through alterations of historic disturbance regimes and resource availability, and increased propagule pressure. Introduction Humans play key roles in the spread and subsequent establishment of species from native to introduced ranges around the world [ 1 ]. Open in a separate window. Fig 1.
Sediment variables Average SE Porewater salinity 0. Bivalve variables Average no. Chione fluctifraga Veneridae 0. Chione undatella Veneridae 0. Musculista senhousia Mytilidae 0. Tagelus californianus Cultellidae 0. Results Bay environmental conditions. Fig 2. Table 2 Results of multiple linear regression testing relationships between densities of all Manila clam individuals A.
Fig 3. Discussion Bay-wide distribution Site had the strongest association with bay-wide distributions of the Manila clam. Hard structure effects Within tidal flat sites, the presence of hard structure had the strongest positive influence on Manila clam density in this study. References 1. Carlton J Introduced marine and estuarine mollusks of North America: an end-of-the th -century perspective. J Shellf Res 11 : — Conserv Biol 18 : — Annu Rev Mar Sci 1 : — Sacramento: California Department of Fish and Game; pp Accessed Sept Accessed Oct J Shellfish Res 2 : 47— Clam mariculture in North America.
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New York: Springer; pp. Limnology and Oceanography 18 : — Est Coast Shelf Sci 45 : — Fimrite P Once-abundant West Coast oysters near extinction. SFGate, Friday 06 July Accessed: Jan Pro R Soc B : — Complex analyses of variance: general problems. Psychometrika 25 : — Philos T Roy Soc B : — Caldow RWG Benefits to shorebirds from invasion of a non-native shellfish. J Expt Mar Biol Ecol : 8— Environ Sci Pollut Res 17 : — PNAS : — Bonsall MB, Hastings A Demographic and environmental stochasticity in predator—prey metapopulation dynamics.
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Milford Lab: NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center
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